You probably have experienced the annoying thing. Flakes on your shoulders and on your clothes that give off what you are trying to hide. It becomes worse when you have hair extensions and your scalp looks like a flour mill has just opened next door.

Dandruff is characterized by the shedding of dead skin cells from the scalp. The degree of shedding will differ from person to person with some experiencing an unusually large amount of flaking either chronically or as a result of certain triggers. It affects many people of any sex and ethnicity and is often accompanied by an itch. The good news is that most cases of dandruff can be easily treated with specialized shampoos.

Dandruff can have several causes, including:

  • Dry skin: is the most common cause of dandruff. The flakes from dry skin are generally smaller and less oily than those from other causes of dandruff, and you’ll likely have symptoms and signs of dry skin on other parts of the body.
  • Irritated, oily skin: This condition is characterized by red, greasy skin covered with flaky white or yellow scales. This condition may affect your scalp and other areas rich in oil glands, such as your eyebrows, the sides of your nose and the backs of your ears and many other areas.
  • Not shampooing often enough: If you don’t regularly wash your hair, oils and skin cells from your scalp can build up, causing dandruff.
  • Other skin conditions: People with skin conditions such as eczema which is a chronic, inflammatory skin condition may appear to have dandruff.
  • A yeast-like fungus (malassezia): Malassezia lives on the scalps of most adults, but for some, it irritates the scalp. This can irritate your scalp and cause more skin cells to grow. The extra skin cells die and fall off, making them appear white and flaky in your hair or on your clothes. It is not known why malassezia irritates some scalps.
  • Sensitivity to hair care products: Sometimes sensitivity to certain ingredients in hair care products or hair dyes can cause reactions such as a red, itchy, scaly scalp. Shampooing too often or using too many styling products may also irritate your scalp, causing dandruff.

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